The hardness, strength and ductility of copper determine its condition. The material condition (alternative term - temper) is designated in standards by a letter with H representing hardness and R tensile strength.
Copper can be supplied in a range of conditions from annealed (soft) to fully hard, which is obtained by cold working.
Annealed copper (H040) has a hardness range 40 to 65HV, tensile strength 200 to 250 N/mm² (R200) with fully cold worked copper (H110) having a hardness of 110HV minimum and tensile strength of 360 N/mm² ( R360) minimum.
The ductility of fully cold worked copper is much less than in the annealed condition with a value of 2% elongation.
The strength and hardness of copper can also be increased by alloying, but this results in a decrease in electrical conductivity. The strongest copper alloy of all is produced by alloying with beryllium, resulting in a tensile strength of up to 1500 N/mm².