These data sheets, originally published in a series from 1968 – 1972, cover all the main coppers and copper alloys. They contain an invaluable summary of data relating to the physical and mechanical properties of the materials at low, ambient and elevated temperatures which is not available elsewhere.
This book, edited by Carol Powell and Roger Francis, is aimed at engineers new to the marine environment and those wanting to update their knowledge. Applications, commonly used alloy compositions, mechanical properties and the types of corrosion that the alloy groups are susceptible to are all described. The concluding section provides an explanation of galvanic corrosion in seawater and how each alloy group behaves when coupled to others
This book by B Webster Smith replaces ‘Copper Through the Ages’ issued in 1934. It is intended for those interested in the history of copper mining, the development of metal-working processes and the uses of copper through the past six thousand years.
Brasses will slowly tarnish in the atmosphere; outdoors the process is more rapid due to the effect of moisture, salt (in marine environments) and pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (acid rain) in industrial areas. The tarnishing can be greatly delayed and the range of colours, which give copper alloys their aesthetic appeal, maintained by either lacquering or waxing (or both).
Lacquering: one of the most effective lacquers is Incralac. Lacquers must be applied in dry, factory conditions and are not suitable for protecting components which are handled by the public, such as handrails, since acid levels of moisture in the skin (pH 5.5) damage the lacquer.
Waxes: copper alloys may be more cheaply protected by waxing. It is important to use natural non-reactive waxes such as Carnauba or Beeswax, not synthetic waxes which will eventually granulate and absorb water. Natural waxes are not affected by UV light.
Since ancient times copper has been used in coins; the Romans used copper widely in this application. The reasons for using copper are its excellent corrosion resistance, ease of stamping, good electrical conductivity for vending machines, antimicrobial properties and ease of recycling.
Induction motor rotors were traditionally made by die casting aluminium around a stack of steel laminations, so forming the rotor bars and end rings. Copper has much better conductivity, which would result in better efficiency, but was not used because it was difficult to die-cast due to its higher melting point. The casting issues have now been solved by improvements in die materials and process control.
Using copper offers a range of options to the motor designer. If the rotor size is unchanged, efficiency can be improved. On the other hand, the rotor size can be reduced while maintaining the original efficiency, so reducing the cost.
Copper flame-free jointing can be done by press fittings and push-fit fittings. The benefits of these types of fittings are:
- Work can be undertaken with occupants in the building
- No flux fumes
- No additional ventilation required
- No need for hot work permits/certificates
- Quick to install
Brasses have been developed where the lead is replaced by silicon. These are marketed under names such as Envirobrass and Eco Brass. They are slightly more expensive than the leaded brasses and not quite as machinable, but have excellent mechanical properties.
The best solution is to use separate tanks since copper ions will always migrate to the aluminium. Failing this, immerse the aluminium component in a 5% solution of nitric acid. This will dissolve any traces of copper.
You have reached the limit with C106 copper. Cold drawn phosphor bronze wire is capable of much higher strengths up to 600N/mm2.
If the oxide is tenacious grit blasting may be required. This should be followed by pickling in a hot 5-10% sulphuric acid solution containing 0.35g/litre potassium dichromate. The pickled tubes should be rinsed thoroughly in hot fresh water and finally dried in hot air.
Heat to 450oC for one hour and air cool. This should be agreed between you and the manufacturer when ordering.