Resource Library

Pub 22 Copper for Busbars - Guidance for Design and Installation

First issued in 1936, in this new edition of our long-standing busbar design guide – Copper for Busbars – the calculation of current-carrying capacity has been greatly simplified by the provision of exact formulae for some common busbar configurations and graphical methods for others.

Other sections have been updated and modified to reflect current practice. 2014. 103 pp.

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Technical Information on Materials Intended for Use with Food

This fact sheet provides technical information on the use of copper and its alloys for food contact materials, including an overview of the latest European legislation.

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Is it possible to heat treat aluminium bronze CW307G (CA104) to improve its corrosion resistance?

Yes, this is covered in Def Stan 02-833. For extruded rods and sections of size 40mm and below, an anneal at 740°C plus or minus 20° followed by air cooling is carried out. This mandatory heat treatment is to eliminate phases which are likely to give rise to selective corrosion in sea water.

With respect to the MOD Defence Standard 02-879 Part 2 Forgings, what do the terms Class 1, Class 2, Class 3 and Class 4 mean?


  • Class 1 is a forging whose failure would lead to uncontrollable flooding, the total immobilisation of the vessel or serious harm to personnel.(e.g. First Level systems in submarines).
  • Class 2 is a forging whose failure would lead to severe but controllable flooding, the serious disruption of weapon systems, main propulsion machinery, or its attendant auxillaries, including generators
  • Class 3 is a forging whose failure does not constitute an immediate, significant hazard.
  • Class 4 is a forging which is used for forging stock only.


What is the most attractive visual feature of nickel silvers?

They can be polished to a silvery appearance.

Is Naval Brass CZ112 (1-1.4% tin) still available?

No, the nearest alloy to Naval Brass is a leaded brass CW712R, available in rod, bar and wire. For sheet and plate the UNS Alloy C46400 (0.5 to 1.0% tin ) is used.

What is the safe limit for ammonia in contact with brass to prevent stress corrosion cracking?

There is no acceptable limit – it is essential that internal stresses are removed as far as possible by a stress relief anneal at 250-350oC for 1/2 to 1 hour.

Is post weld heat treatment required when welding copper-nickel alloys?

Post weld heat treatment is normally unnecessary.

What is the solution treatment temperature?

This term applies to alloys such as Cu-Be and Cu-Cr which are strengthened by age (precipitation hardening). It is the temperature (900-1000C) to which the alloys are heated prior to quenching and ageing.

Is there a difference in properties between continuous cast versus centrifugally cast aluminium bronze?

Yes, in the EN specification the properties are quoted separately for continuous cast (GC) and centrifugally cast (GZ) conditions.

P11 - Copper: The Metal of Civilisation Timeline Poster

Poster showing how copper has made vital contributions to sustaining and improving society since the dawn of civilisation, from the most basic tools of the Copper Age almost 10,000 years ago, through to the Large Hadron Collider. Significant copper-enable innovations are shown through the ages, with significant historical events for context. Printed version available. 2016.

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What is TN-C-S?

TN–C-S is the most common type of earthing employed in the UK.  The name, defined in French in European standards, indicates that the earth (Terre) and Neutral are connected together by the supplier, that the earth and neutral are Combined on one conductor in the supply system and that they are Separated at the consumer’s point of common coupling.  This separation of earth and neutral is maintained throughout the installation.  In other words, the neutral is treated is the same way as the phase – insulated and isolated from earth throughout.

This is important because keeping the neutral and earth separate within the building reduces stray currents in the earthing system, and improves electromagnetic compatibility.

Other types of earthing system are described in section 3.2 Earthing on LV Systems and Within Premises in Pub 119 Earthing Practice.