Introduction to copper detailing including laying systems, ventilation, substrates and parapet gutters.
Overview of traditional and long strip systems.
The European Copper Institute (ECI) strongly supports measures that help to improve the quality of water intended for human consumption. ECI therefore is in favour of EU-wide standards that help understanding and reduce sources of chemical and/or biological contamination in drinking water systems. This document outlines three main topics to be addressed in this context.
Effects Based Methods are a promising new tool, and are considered for use under the Water Framework Directive. Effects Based Methods are a holistic approach which could assess the risks of chemical substances more accurately. Substances are grouped by their mode of action, and specific methods are subsequently developed based on this mode of action to establish a trigger value. This allows for regulating substances with the same mode of action.
This report evaluates the use of 13 Effects Based Methods that might be considered for regulating metals under the Water Framework Directive. Each Effects Based Method was evaluated with respect to three criteria that are critical when considering such methods for regulatory use. These criteria include specificity, sensitivity (to metals and to other classes of toxicants), and the link to higher levels of biological organisation.
The evaluation concludes that that each of the available methods has at least one significant limitation. Therefore, Effects Based Methods are today not well suited for regulating metals under the Water Framework Directive. Additionally, since metals are easily and routinely measured, the added benefit of developing Effects Based Methods for metals is unclear. Instead, it is recommended to further focus on developing bioavailability models for metals mixtures. Such models would be a more practical and cost-effective tool to assess metals under the Water Framework Directive in a holistic way.
First issued in 1936, in this new edition of our long-standing busbar design guide – Copper for Busbars – the calculation of current-carrying capacity has been greatly simplified by the provision of exact formulae for some common busbar configurations and graphical methods for others.
Other sections have been updated and modified to reflect current practice. 2014. 103 pp.
This fact sheet provides technical information on the use of copper and its alloys for food contact materials, including an overview of the latest European legislation.
Poster showing how copper has made vital contributions to sustaining and improving society since the dawn of civilisation, from the most basic tools of the Copper Age almost 10,000 years ago, through to the Large Hadron Collider. Significant copper-enable innovations are shown through the ages, with significant historical events for context. Printed version available. 2016.
Winning poster from our ‘Curious about Copper’ poster competition to design an original poster that will appeal to a target audience of 11-16 year olds, highlighting the vital role copper plays in our daily lives. 2011.
ECI & actors from Europe’s energy sector, July 2015