Since ancient times copper has been used in coins; the Romans used copper widely in this application. The reasons for using copper are its excellent corrosion resistance, ease of stamping, good electrical conductivity for vending machines and ease of recycling.
Strength and hardness increases with the percentage of cold reduction after hot working. Properties are defined in standards. See also CDA publications in the Resource Library.
In general an earthing system needs to satisfy three demands:
- It must conduct lightning and short-circuit currents without introducing intolerable step and touch-voltages .
- It must protect the occupants, equipment and fabric of the building against damage due to short-circuit currents and lightning strikes.
- It must provide a suitable environment for electronic equipment by providing a low impedance path to interconnect equipment.
Although requirements for these three aspects are very different and are often specified separately, the implementation of them requires an integrated systems approach.
Because the thermal conductivity is so high – it is 23 times better than stainless steel or titanium and 1.6 times better than aluminum.
EN 1254 Parts 1 to 5.
Both are used to mitigate the effects of voltage dips. Dips are characterised by the depth – the retained voltage – and the duration. Short and deep dips are best served by a DVR while long and shallow dips are the province of the voltage regulator.
A voltage regulator has no energy store. It has a transformer secondary winding in series with the supply. When the input voltage moves outside the tolerance band the primary of that transformer is driven to boost, or in anti-phase to reduce, the voltage appropriately. Because the load voltage is kept constant, the power to the load is constant so, when the input voltage falls, the input current increases. The current capability of the supply and the device itself limits the working range to about +/-30% of nominal voltage.
A DVR has an energy store, so requires no additional input power (in the short term) to boost the voltage during a dip. A DVR can correct a dip to 0% retained voltage. But the DVR has a limited energy store and so is suitable for short-term effects only – it cannot correct for long term under voltage, for example. Also, the store has to be recharged between events so it is not suitable multiple dips are expected frequently. Typically, DVRs use super capacitors, large secondary batteries or high-speed flywheels as energy stores.
Unsurprisingly, DVRs are more expensive than voltage regulators.
This depends on the pitch of the roof. For 3-4 degrees 14.6m, for 4-10 degrees 11.0m, for 10-30 degrees 9.7m and for over 30 degrees 8.1m.
There are several reasons. Firstly, the bars are more compact because copper has a higher conductivity than aluminium. Secondly, it is much easier to joint copper. A hard, highly insulating oxide grows very rapidly on the surface of aluminium, making it very difficult to make good reliable joints in the field. On the other hand, the thin oxide layer that forms, more slowly, on copper is not an insulator so jointing is simple. Finally, copper is much stronger than aluminium, less susceptible to creep and better at withstanding short circuit current forces.
Condenser coils with round copper tubes and aluminium fins have been a winning combination for ACR coils for many years. Manufacturers enjoy the assembly advantages provided by these components while technicians find it easy to join and repair copper tubing in the field. More importantly, this well established technology has a proven record of durability in the field resulting in a high level of customer satisfaction.
Smaller diameter tubes allow for more effective heat transfer.
Yes, copper is as vital as calcium, iron and zinc. An adult needs 0.9mg of copper every day to maintian good health. Nuts, seafood, wholegrain cereas and offal are good sources of copper and a balanced diet should provide adequate copper.