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What does the term DEF STAN (DStan) mean?

These are the engineering standards prepared for material for use by the Ministry of Defence.  They have replaced NES (Naval Engineering Standards), which in their turn replaced DGS (Directorate General Ships) standards.

Which copper alloy has the best corrosion resistance in seawater?

Various copper alloys have particular strengths under specific sea water conditions but on balance 90-10 copper-nickel has excellent corrosion resistance in many applications and is perhaps the most versatile. There is a detailed description of the properties and applications of this and other popular copper nickel alloys on the website. Of course, aluminium bronze alloys, particularly nickel aluminium bronze, are also recognised for their corrosion resistance in severe seawater conditions and for that reason also have established applications as propellers and pumps and valves.