An illustrated introduction to the history, metallurgy, production, and applications of copper and copper alloys. (Revision of Book 1). 1998. 42pp.
They do not experience chloride or sulphide stress corrosion. They have a high resistance to ammonia stress corrosion compared to other copper alloys and do not require a stress relief anneal for seawater service.
This book covers the design of electrical installations in buildings, presenting good practice design solutions to reduce the impact of power quality problems and explaining how electrical efficiency can be improved. 1997. 92 pp.
They are available but 70-30 copper-nickel consumables are preferred for welding both the 90-10 and 70-30 alloys due to superior deposition characteristics.
This design and installation guide gives information on materials, components, pipe sizing, jointing, safety, electrical bonding, testing and purging. 1997. 30pp.
This design and installation book gives information on water supplies, systems components and materials, hydraulic calculations, pipework installation, system commissioning, maintenance and documentation. 1997. 24pp.
Copper-nickel alloys can harbour slimes, but the attachment of macro-organisms—such as marine grasses and shellfish—is impaired. If these do become attached under quiet conditions, adherence is poor and they can be easily removed mechanically.
Chapter 10 from Harry Meigh’s book ‘Cast and Wrought Aluminium Bronzes – Properties, Processes and Structure’ describing resistance to wear of aluminium bronze alloys. It also gives details of factors affecting wear and information on alloy selection. Pub 126.
Lead is NOT being categorically phased out but the use of lead (and cadmium) is being increasingly recognised as being undesirable both in terms of the long term environmental impact and recyclability of products. The End of Life Vehicles (ELV) Directive (2000/53/EC), the RoHS Regulations (2002/95/EC) and WEE Directive (2002/96/EC) prevent the use of certain hazardous substances including lead (and cadmium) containing materials. The use of leaded solder in potable water systems has also been prohibited in Europe and in many countries worldwide.
This publication provides an understanding of the two primary copper-nickel alloys to allow good fabrication and operational practices to optimise in-service performance. Topics covered include general engineering properties of 90/10 and 70/30 copper-nickels, welding and fabrication practices and a basic overview of corrosion and performance in seawater immersion trials. 2018. 32pp.
Transformers used to supply IT equipment and other non-linear loads need to be de-rated to between 60 and 80% of their nominal capacity. This technical note explains why, and how to determine the correct factor. 2000. 6pp. (Out of print).
No, they are made from steel coated with a thin layer of copper.